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Skin, structure, function, conditions, and skincare tips

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The skin is the largest organ in the body, measuring over 20 square feet in area. It protects us from infections and elements, helps to regulate the temperature of the body, and enables us to sense touch, heat, and cold.

There are three layers :
  1. The epidermis:- The outermost layer of the epidermis forms a water-resistant barrier and our skin tone.
  2. The dermis:-Under the epidermis, the dermis includes hard connective tissue, hair follicles and glands of the sweat.
  3. The deeper subcutaneoustissue (hypodermis):- consists of fat and connective tissue.

The obvious lack of body hair distinguishes people from all other major land mammals immediately. Irrespective of the difference of individuals or races, the human body looks more or less hairless, in the sense that the hair is so vestigial that it seems missing. But hair grows abundantly in some areas. These relatively hairy sites can be called epigamic regions and concern social and sexual engagement, visually or with the scent of the hair follicle glasses.

The skin’s characteristics vary from birth to old age. It is sweet, dry, soft and free of wrinkles and blemishes in infants and children. Their sebaceous glands function only minimally and are poorly sweated by children younger than two years old. In the young, hair is longer, bigger and pigmented, especially in the scalp, axillas, pubic eminence, and the face of the male. Increased general skin pigmentation, localized pigmented foci mysteriously appear and acne lesions often grow. Hair growth, honeycomb, and sebum secretion start to flourish. As a person ages, anatomical and physiological changes, as well as exposure to sunlight and wind, cause skin, particularly that exposed to the elements, to become dry, wrinkled, and flaccid.

General structure

The skin, as shown in Fig 1, is divided into different layers. Mainly keratinocytes are present in the epidermis. The epidermis is underneath the basement membrane; this narrow, multi-layered structure anchors the epidermis to the dermis. A large proportion of fat is the layer below the dermis, the hypodermis. The following are these structures.

Skin, structure, function, conditions, and skincare tips
Skin structure


The epidermis is the external layer of the skin defined as a squamous stratified epithelium consisting in particular of the progressive differentiation of keratinocytes (Amirlak and Shahabi, 2017). Keratinocytes are the major building blocks of the epidermis, which produces protein keratin. Since the epidermis is avascular (does not contain blood vessels), it depends entirely on the basement membrane to produce a nutrient and to dispose.

 The epidermis is responsible for:
  • New cells: at the base of the epidermis. This happens. About a month after the cells form, they travel up to the top level and flow off.
  • Colors: the epidermis produces melanin, the color of your skin.
  • Body protection: the epidermis has special cells in your immune system that help you stay healthy.


The dermis is the inner layer and is considerably thicker than the epidermis (1-5mm) (White and Butcher, 2005). The primary role of the dermis is to maintain and sustain the epidermis between the basement membrane zone and the subcutaneous layer. Dermis’ main functions are:

  • Protection;
  • Deepening mechanical damage to structures;;
  • Provision of epidermis nutrition;
  • In wound healing, playing an important role.

The interlacing network, which is the main component of the connective tissue, is mainly made up of collagen with some elastin. Several specialized cells (Mast Cells and Fibroblast) and structures are dispersed within the dermis.


The hypodermis consists mainly of fat, the subcutaneous layer lying underneath the dermis. It provides the skin with the main structural support isolates the body from cold and helps to absorb shock. The nerves and the vessels of the blood are interlaced.

General function

It is a protective organ

It has a primary role to play as a barrier. It protects against mechanical impacts and pressure, temperature variations, microorganisms, radiation, and chemicals.

The skin is a regulatory organ

It regulates various aspects of physiology, including body temperature through sweat and hair, peripheral circulation changes, and fluid balance through sweat. Vitamin D synthesis is also used as a reservoir.

It is a sensational organ

The skin has a vast network of nerve cells that detect and relay environmental changes. Separate heat, cold, touch, and pain receptors are available. Damage to these nerve cells is known in the affected regions as neuropathy, leading to a loss of sensation. Neuropathic patients may not experience pain if their wounds are injured, the risk of serious injury or a deterioration of their existing wound increases.

Water resistance

The skin acts as a waterproof barrier that doesn’t wash out essential nutrients. The most outer layer, the Epidermis, covers the nutrients and oils which help hydrate the skin. The sebaceous glands, which release the liquid oily sebum, contribute partly to this. The waters themselves do not remove oils on the skin, because the oils which reside in our dermis flow and without the epidermis would be affected by water.

Skin Conditions

Dermatitis:- A common term for skin inflammation. The most common form is atopic dermatitis (a kind of eczema).

Rash: Almost every change in the appearance of the skin can be described as a rash. Most rashes are caused by simple skin rash; others are caused by medical conditions.

Psoriasis:- A disease that can cause a variety of rashes. The most common form is silver, scaly plaques.

Eczema:- Inflammation of the skin (dermatitis), which leads to itchy rash. It is usually caused by an overactive immune system.

Dandruff:- a scaly condition of the scalp, Seborrheic dermatitis, psoriasis, or eczema may lead to this condition of the scalp.

Cellulitis:– Dermal and subcutaneous tissue inflammation, usually caused by infection. The result is usually a red, warm, often painful rash.

Acne:- Acne affects more than 85 percent of people at some point in life. it is the most common condition.

Rosacea:- A red rash on the face caused by a chronic condition. It might look like acne in Rosacea, and is misunderstood.

Skin abscess:– (Furuncle or Boil): Localized disease creates an under-skin pus collection. In order to be healed, a doctor needs to open and drain some abscesses.

Warts:– A virus is responsible for infecting the skin and making it overgrowth, creating wart. Warts may be treated with or removed at home with chemicals, with duct tape or with freezing by a doctor.

Melanoma:- Melanoma results from sun damage and other causes, which is the most harmful type of skin cancer. Melanoma may be identified by a biopsy.

Seborrheic keratosis:– A gentle growth, often itchy, that looks like a wart stuck. A physician may remove seborrheic keratosis if it is disturbing.

Basal cell carcinoma:– The most frequent cancer of the skin. Carcinomas of the basal cells are less dangerous than melanoma as they grow and spread more slowly.

Squamous cell carcinoma:- Squamous cell carcinoma, a common form of skin cancer, can start as an ulcer that does not cure, or abnormal growth. In sun-exposed areas, it usually develops.

Actinic keratosis:– A bump that forms a smooth or crooked bump on the exposed skin. Actinic keratosis can occasionally develop into cancer.

Tinea versicolor:- A benign infection with the fungal causes pale areas of low skin pigmentation.

Hives:- Elevated, red, itchy patches which suddenly appear. Allergic reactions usually lead to hives.

Herpes:– Herpes HSV-1 and HSV-2 viruses can cause regular bubbles or irritation throughout the lips or genitals.

Ringworm:– An infection of fungal skin (also called tinea). It does not produce characteristic rings due to worms.

Scabies:– Small mites burrowing into the skin are causing scabies. Typical for scabies is an intense itchy rash in the fingers web, wrist, elbow and buttock.

Shingles (herpes zoster): -Shingles are a painful rash on one side of the body due to the chickenpox virus. In most individuals, a new adult vaccine can prevent shingles.

Viral exantham:- A number of viral infections can result in a red rash in large skin areas. In children, this is particularly common.

 Skin care tips

1. Regularly wash, but not too much

It is important for protection to wash the skin and to keep it clean of dirt, debris, bacteria and other microbes, but washing it too much can harm sensitive skin. Take care of your skin with soft, hypoallergenic soap for once a day. Don’t wash or shower in hot water, because it it may scald and drain humidity from it, resulting in dehydration and skin.

2 . Stop smoking cigarettes.

Smoking has a long list of health risks, including lung cancer and stroke, but it also has a negative effect on your skin – especially on your face. Cigarette smokers often get a yellow color, wrinkles and other signs of premature aging, because they don’t get enough oxygen from their lungs and add more toxins into their body. Protect your skin and other organs as soon as possible by quitting smoking.

3. Lower consumption of alcohol.

Alcohol abuse, particularly liver and pancreas cancers, also presents a long list of health problems, but skin is also sensitive to ethanol intoxication. Patchy, poisonous skin with many blood vessels under the skin are common signs of alcohol abuse, so either stop using alcoholic drinks or limit your consumption to no more than one per 24-hour period. Alcohol consumption is not sufficient for you.

4. Eat nutritious foods.

Your skin also needs different nutrients in addition to water to stay healthy. You should usually eat antioxidant-rich food and limit your intake of conservation substances and artificial additives. Antioxidants are fruit and veggie compounds that prevent “free radicals” from oxidizing, which damage tissue, like the skin. Free radicals are overabundant and associated with cancer and premature aging.

5.Take nutritional supplements into consideration.

Another way to protect and heal your skin is to bring all the necessary nutrients into your body from the inside out. Nutritious consumption is obviously important for skin health, but it may be difficult to obtain adequate specific vitamins, minerals, and fats. Consider supplementing your skin with biotin (vitamin B7), vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and omega-3.

6. Stay hydrated properly.

It is also important to keep your skin hydrated well to protect and make it look healthy. Hydrated skin can better protect against sunburn and contribute to a more efficient body temperature control. Eight or more 8-ounce glasses of water (2 liters) are recommended daily, although you may need more when it is hot and damp outside. Some fruit or veggie is also freshly squeezed and also healthy and supply important vitamins and minerals.

7. Use quality moisturizers.

Keeping your skin moisturized protects it against external factors and helps protect it from dryness, flaking, irritation, itching and redness. Use generous amounts of moisturizing cream or lotion (like eucerin or aquaphor) to scale your skin into moisture immediately after you jump off the bath or shower. Restore your moisturizing agent later in the day, especially if your skin is dry and fluffy or if you get sunburn. Have your specific type in a skincare routine..

8. Wear repellent for insects

It is also important to protect your skin against bug bites, especially in the cases of severe diseases, like mosquitoes and ticks. Apply insect repellents on your skin when you are outside, especially if you’re nearby forests and water bodies, in addition to possibly wearing long pants, long shirts, gloves and hats with special nets. The majorities of repellents are waterproof and last for up to six hours.

9. Get a shower filter.

Chlorine, which is added to water as a disinfectant, should be considered as a common skin irritant to protect you from. Some people (itchy red hives and bump) may have severe dermatitis, but everyone reacts negatively to chlorine at sufficiently high doses or concentrations. Chlorine at higher doses can dry the skin, cause flaccidity and cause mild chemical burns.

10. Know Your Skin

Regularly check your skin for moles and other possible signs of cancer. Discuss what kinds of modifications should concern you with your dermatologist. Certain conditions are worthy of a visit to the dermatologist, including frequent acne, inflammatory or dry skin with irritations, and rashes, as they may be signs of one of many skin types or inflames. It is important to get medical care to resolve it quickly and avoid putting your skin at risk if you ever notice another problem.

11. Use sunscreen.

A Sun Protection Factor (SPF) has been assigned to sun screes that determine their efficiency when UV rays are blocked. More numbers indicate a greater level of protection. Even during cool or slightly nude days, you should use a large-spectrum sunscreen with SPF 15 or more.

Broad-spectrum means ultraviolet A (UVA) and ultraviolet B (UVB) ultraviolet exposure filters on a product label. UVA rays penetrate deep into the skin and mainly cause preventable aging and cancer of the skin. Sunburn is a result of UVB rays affecting the surface of the skin.

Remember to put a thick sunscreen layer on all exposed parts. Get help in places like your back that are difficult to reach.

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